Foucault y las licencias Creative Commons
En 1969, con ocasión de una presentación hecha en la Societé Francais de Philosophie, Michel Foucault se hizo la pregunta sobre qué es un autor. Y casi 30 años después, al leer aquel texto, uno puede preguntarse si quizás allí está el origen de todo el movimiento que se cristalizaría en las licencias Creative Commons. Como muestra, un botón:
First of all, discourses are objects of appropriation. The form of ownership from which they spring is of a rather particular type, one that has been codified for many years. We should note that, historically, this type of ownership has always been subsequent to what one might call penal appropriation. Texts, books, and discourses really began to have authors (other than mythical, sacralized and sacralizing figures) to the extent that authors became subject to punishment, that is, to the extent that discourses could be transgressive. In our culture (and doubtless in many others), discourse was not originally a product, a thing, a kind of goods; it was essentially an act – an act placed in the bipolar field of the sacred and the profane, the licit and the illicit, the religious and the blasphemous. Historically, it was a gesture fraught with risks before becoming goods caught up in a circuit of ownership.
Once a system of ownership for texts came into being, once strict rules concerning author’s rights, author-publisher relations, rights of reproduction, and related matters were enacted – at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century – the possibility of transgression attached to the act of writing took on, more and more, the form of an imperative peculiar to literature. It is as if the author, beginning with the moment at which he was placed in the system of property that characterizes our society, compensated for the status that he thus acquired by rediscovering the old bipolar field of discourse, systematically practicing transgression and thereby restoring danger to a writing that was now guaranteed the benefits of ownership.
Ya sabe. Guarde el texto en su biblioteca más-cer-ca-na.
La estupenda foto gracias a la licencia Creative Commons que adoptó,
créalo o no, L’incroyable Monsieur Boubou de Paris!